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The Victoria Cross is the highest military decoration in the British and Commonwealth Armed Forces. To be recommended for a Victoria Cross the proposed recipient must have performed deeds of exceptional valour beyond the call of duty while under direct enemy fire. 
Of the 20 million or so men and women who have served in the Armed Forces since the medals inception 160 years ago only 1,358 have been awarded. 
 
By late 1854, a confident Britain was fully engaged in its first major conflict in almost 40 years against the Russians on the Crimean peninsula. Here was the opportunity to tame the Russian Bear yet regardless of the jingoism that had preceded it the war very soon became deeply unpopular as the army proved itself to be ill-prepared, inefficient and worse still incompetently led. 
 
In what soon became an arduous and bloody campaign the dispatches from the front sent by from correspondents such as John Howard Russell of The Times detailed a string of woes and near calamities that not only appalled the public but also greatly disturbed the Queen. 
 
But despite being poorly led, inadequately provisioned and dying of disease in their thousands in the rat infested hospital at Scutarii or of hypothermia in their bivouacs great victories were still won at the Battles of Alma, Inkerman and Balaclava. 
 
For all the incompetence displayed by those who commanded them the troops behaviour in combat remained exemplary as highlighted in such incidences as the Thin Red Line and the Charge of the Light Brigade; both deeds heralded as being of the utmost heroism – surely there should be some way of acknowledging and rewarding acts that went way beyond a soldiers mere devotion to duty. Certainly Queen Victoria thought so, but a reward system that recognised neither rank nor status would be controversial. 
 
It was widely believed that an Officer led his men into battle and that the common soldier fighting under instruction from his social superior was in obeying orders merely doing his duty. It was the Officer who should be praised for the quality of his leadership. In any case, the army fought as a collective unit and to single out any individual from the ranks for particular praise would damage morale. 
 
Queen Victoria, supported by her husband Prince Albert under whose guidance the new medal was designed and named, inaugurated the Victoria Cross by Royal Decree (Royal Sign Manual) on 29 January 1858, and backdated to cover the Crimean War. Its creation was later endorsed by Parliament. 
 
Cast from the bronze of enemy cannon captured at the Siege of Sevastopol it was intended to have no intrinsic value other than as a symbol of the nation’s gratitude with the simple inscription - For Valour. 
 
On 26 June 1857, at a ceremony held in London’s Hyde Park, Queen Victoria awarded 62 Crimean War combat veterans with the medal that now carried her name. 
Victoria Crosses Awarded – 1,538 
By Nationality: 
1. England 621 
2. Ireland 180 
3. Scotland 164 
4. Australia 96 
5. Canada 96 
6. India 27 
7. Wales 25 
8. New Zealand 22 
9. South Africa 21 
10. Nepal (Gurkhas) 13 
11. Channel Islands 11 
5 United States, 3 Denmark, 2 Newfoundland, 2 German, 2 Rhodesia, 1 Belgium, Ceylon, Fiji, Grenada, Jamaica, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Virgin Islands, 58 remain uncertain. 
 
By Service: 
Royal Navy 117 
Royal Artillery 65 
Royal Air Force 39 
Royal Medical Corps 38 
Infantry, Cavalry, and other Combat Units 1,191 
 
Awarded World War One 634 
Awarded World War Two 182 
Post – 1945 12 
 
First recipient of the Victoria Cross: 
Lt Charles Lucas RN from County Monaghan in Ireland who serving aboard HMS Hecla during the bombardment of the Russian fortress at Bomarsund on the Baltic coast picked up a smouldering shell about to explode and carried onto the deck before throwing it overboard where it detonated, saving a great many lives. 
 
Youngest recipient of the Victoria Cross: 
Thomas Flynn (Drummer Boy) 15 years and 3 months – on 26 November 1857 during the assault on Cawnpore in India he engaged several of the enemy in hand-to-hand combat. He died an inmate of the Workhouse in 1892. 
Andrew Fitzgibbon (Stretcher-Bearer) 15 years and 3 months – on 26 August 1860 during the storming of the Taku Forts in China he repeatedly exposed himself to danger to remove wounded soldiers from the line of fire despite being severely injured himself. 
 
Oldest Recipient: 
William Raynor, Lt Bengal Army 66 years – 11 May 1857, during the Siege of Delhi along with 9 others he defended the ammunition depot against overwhelming odds. Aware that they were about to be overrun he detonated the ammunition killing a great many of the enemy but also five of the defenders. He had expected to die in the explosion but survived. 
 
Posthumous Awards 295 
Youngest Posthumous Award: 
Jack Cornwell RN 16 years and 145 days – on 31 May whilst serving aboard HMS Chester during the Battle of Jutland he remained at his post manning a deck gun despite the rest of his crew having been killed. Mortally wounded he was nonetheless taken to a civilian hospital where it was hoped his mother would be able to see him before he died. She did not arrive in time. 
 
First Posthumous Award: 
The decision to award the Victoria Cross posthumously wasn’t made until 1907 with amongst its first recipients Lt Teignmouth Melvill and Lt Nevill Coghill who were killed at the Battle of Isandlwana on 22 January 1879 whilst trying to save the Regimental Colours. A decision that remains controversial to this day. 
 
People to receive the Victoria Cross twice: 
Captain Arthur Martin-Leake (Royal Army Medical Corps) 1902 & 1914. 
Captain Noel Chavasse (Royal Army Medical Corps) 1916 & 1917. 
Captain Charles Upham (New Zealand Army) 1941 & 1942. 
 
4 pairs of brothers have won the Victoria Cross 
Most Victoria Crosses awarded on a single day: 24 - Second Relief of Lucknow, 16 November 1857. 
Most Victoria Crosses Awarded to a Unit in the same action: 
 
7 - B Company, 24th Regiment of Foot, Defence of Rorke’s Drift 22/23, January 1879. 
Eleven were awarded in total. 
 
Notable Recipients: 
Lt John Rouse Merriott Chard, Officer Commanding, Mission Station, Rorke’s Drift 
 
THE Queen has been graciously pleased to signify Her intention to confer the decoration of the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned Officers and Soldiers of Her Majesty's Army, whose claims have been submitted for Her Majesty's approval, for their gallant conduct in the defence of Rorke's Drift, on the occasion of the attack by the Zulus on 22nd and 23rd of January, 1879. 
 
Captain Chard died of cancer on 1 November 1897, aged 49. 
Squadron-Leader Guy Gibson, Commander of Operation Chastise, the Dambuster Raid. 
 
His Citation Read: 
Wing Commander Gibson personally made the initial attack on the Moehne dam. Descending to within a few feet of the water and taking the full brunt of the antiaircraft defences, he delivered his attack with great accuracy. Afterwards he circled very low for 30 minutes, drawing the enemy fire on himself in order to leave as free a run as possible to the following aircraft which were attacking the dam in turn. 
Wing Commander Gibson then led the remainder of his force to the Eder dam where, with complete disregard for his own safety, he repeated his tactics and once more drew on himself the enemy fire so that the attack could be successfully developed. 
 
Squadron-Leader Guy Gibson was killed on active service when his Mosquito plane crashed over Holland on 19 September, 1944. He was 26 years of age 
Captain Edward Stephen Fogarty Fegen, Captain HMS Jervis Bay 
His citation read 
On the 5th of November, 1940, in heavy seas, Captain Fegen, in His Majesty's Armed Merchant Cruiser Jervis Bay, was escorting thirty-eight Merchantmen. Sighting a powerful German warship he at once drew clear of the Convoy, made straight for the Enemy, and brought his ship between the Raider and her prey, so that they might scatter and escape. Crippled, in flames, unable to reply, for nearly an hour the Jervis Bay held the German's fire. So she went down: but of the Merchantmen all but four or five were saved. 
 
Captain Fegen went down with his ship along with 167 of its crew of 254. 
The most recent award of the Victoria Cross was on 26 February 2015, to Lance-Corporal Joshua Leakey of the Parachute Regiment ‘For Valour’ during service in Afghanistan. 
Tagged as: Fact File, War
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