Born ‘Gaius Octavius’ on 23 September 63BC, the son of Julius Caesar’s sister. 
He was a well-educated and cultured man who found pleasure in literature and poetry. 
The murder of Julius Caesar in 44BC had put Cassius and Brutus as rulers of Rome, but they fled after Marc Antony rallied to mob against them. Marc Antony was now in charge of Rome, but had little authority. 
At the reading of Caesar’s will, Octavian as he was known to his family was named as Caesar’s adopted son and rightful heir. Octavian and Marc Antony formed an alliance together with Lepidus to rule Rome and its territories as a Triumvirate (three-way power share). 
Octavian ruled Rome 
Marc Antony ruled Egypt 
Lepidus ruled Africa 
This alliance was to fall apart and Octavian fought and was victorious against Marc Antony and Cleopatra at the battle of Actium in 31BC. Following their defeat, Marc Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide. 
Octavian returned to Rome and became First Citizen (Princeps). 
Emperor 27BC – 14AD 
Octavian became emperor in 27BC and the senate named him Augustus. 
He was now the first emperor of Rome. 
Augustus arranged for much of Rome to be rebuilt with new buildings, roads and aqueducts. This became a time of great peace in Rome (Pax Romana). 
Augustus ruled from 27BC – 14AD. He became emperor at age thirty-six, but had already ruled for some time, and he continued to rule until his death at age seventy-seven. Many believed that his wife Livia may have been involved in his death. 
Augustus on his deathbed stated ‘I inherited a city of clay and turned it into marble’. 
Tagged as: Junior Ancient Rome
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